北京报告1例外地来京就诊肺炭疽病例!牛羊肉还能吃吗?

北京报告1例外地来京就诊肺炭疽病例!牛羊肉还能吃吗?
Beijing reports a case of deadly anthrax pneumonia who contacted cattle, sheep
北京报告1例外地来京就诊肺炭疽病例!牛羊肉还能吃吗?

北京报告1例外地来京就诊肺炭疽病例!牛羊肉还能吃吗?

Beijing on Monday reported an anthrax pneumonia patient, who comes from Chengde in North China’s Hebei Province and had contact history with cattle and sheep, and products that come from those animals.

The patient was transported to Beijing via an ambulance four days after showing symptoms and the person was later quarantined and put under treatment, the Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Beijing CDC) announced on Monday.

Anthrax is highly deadly if not treated properly. Bacillus anthracis, the pathogen that causes anthrax, was developed into a biochemical weapon and had been used in 20th century. According to an article published in Science Focus, a journal from Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Japan used it as a biochemical weapon in World War II.

Anthrax is prevalent among cattle and sheep. Human beings usually get infected after coming in contact with sick animals or contaminated products. The most common way of infection, 95 percent of reported cases, are skin contacts, which could cause blisters and skin necrosis, Beijing CDC said.

The most dangerous one is anthrax pneumonia, when a patient inhales dust containing Bacillus anthracis and gets infected. People can get intestinal anthrax after eating contaminated food, usually meat, and will develop symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

Anthrax can be transmitted directly between human beings but it’s not as infectious as flu or COVID-19. Bacillus anthracis is a bacterium and multiple antibiotics are effective treatments.

8月9日北京市报告1例外地来京就诊肺炭疽病例。病例来自河北省承德市围场满族蒙古族自治县。在当地有牛、羊及其制品接触史。发病4天后由救护车转运来京就诊。病例已在医院隔离治疗,所有管控措施均已落实。

1

炭疽是什么?

炭疽是由细菌(炭疽杆菌)引起的一种传染病,主要流行于食草动物牛、羊、鹿等。

炭疽杆菌可以形成芽胞(细菌的一种形态),抵抗力会变的很强,在适宜的环境中可以存活几十年甚至更长,牛羊等食草动物一般在吃草时经口感染土壤中的炭疽杆菌而发病。

2

在食草动物中流行,人如何被感染的?

人一般是通过接触感染炭疽的动物及其制品而感染炭疽,如果皮肤接触到这些污染物,炭疽杆菌会通过皮肤上的微小伤口进入人体内,引起皮肤炭疽;如果食用了污染的肉类,可以引起肠炭疽;如果呼吸吸入了含有炭疽杆菌的飞沫或粉尘,可以引起肺炭疽。

3

人感染后都有哪些症状?

通常人感染后以皮肤炭疽最常见,可占到95%以上,多发生在手、脚、面部、颈肩部等裸露的皮肤上面。感染后,病人一般会有发热和寒颤,皮肤上先出现红斑或丘疹(类似蚊虫叮咬的包块),之后出现水泡,继而中央坏死形成溃疡性黑色焦痂。

4

炭疽严重吗,怎么治疗?

如果不治疗,炭疽很危险,可以致命。但炭疽杆菌属于细菌,多种抗生素都可以治疗,一般首选青霉素类药物,如果怀疑自己可能感染炭疽,应及时到医院就诊。越早治疗,效果越好。

5

炭疽如何预防呢?

炭疽主要影响职业人群,包括牛羊养殖、屠宰和贩卖人员,兽医,或者从事牛羊产品加工等行业的人员,这些人员不但要加强个人防护,更要按照农业部门要求,加强牲畜管理,并接受检疫,严禁宰杀、食用病、死畜,做好家畜的疫苗接种。

6

牛羊肉是否还可以购买和食用?

市售牛羊肉均经过严格检疫,正规途径购买的牛羊肉可以放心食用。

在进行肉类加工时,应注意生熟分开,肉类应熟透以后再食用。这些措施不仅可以预防炭疽,也可以预防其他传染病。

7

外出旅游怎么预防炭疽?

我国及世界多地均存在炭疽动物疫情,人感染炭疽也多发生在职业人群中。外出旅游时只要尽量避免接触不明动物或者相关制品、特别是病、死动物或家畜;食用时选择正规场所,选择充分煮熟的食物,保持良好的个人卫生习惯。就可以避免或减少感染炭疽了。

8

炭疽会人传人吗?

炭疽在人和人之间不能像流感或者新冠肺炎那样传播。接触病人被感染的概率极低,一般皮肤炭疽病灶处可排菌,偶尔可以人传人。尽管如此,照顾炭疽病例时还应尽量减少接触,必要时可做好个人防护。

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